The Technology processes saline solution (typically seawater) in order to capture and store (fix) large volumes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from both the atmosphere and/or point source fugitive emissions directly from major emitting operations such as coal fired power stations, petrochemical plants, steel refineries etc.
It is well-known that the world's oceans are a major CO2 sink; however, this uptake of atmospheric CO2 is relatively slow in geological terms, due predominantly to considerable barriers; barriers that until now have not been fully understood.
It is also well-known that the oceans are supersaturated with respect to calcium and magnesium; throughout our process these elements allow the rapid uptake of CO2. Moreover, the CO2 is stored in a geologically stable crystal, predominantly Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) and Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO3).
Since the industrial revolution, the oceans have been unable to keep up with the rapidly increasing volume of CO2 that man has been releasing into the atmosphere. GSA's technology mimics nature's processes; moreover it accelerates these natural processes in order to counter man's pollution, thus alleviating Climate Change.
Our technology processes large volumes of saline solution as well as waste brine from sources such as desalination and water treatment plants through an open flowing system. Once the solution has been processed in the flowing system, an inorganic agent is introduced into the processed solution. This agent induces instantaneous precipitation of carbonate minerals such as Calcium Carbonate and Magnesium Carbonate.
As a result of the induced precipitation, the chemistry of the solution has been altered, thus, the solution has lost its CO2 content. In an attempt to regain its previous state, the solution instantly begins re-absorbing CO2 (it attempts to correct itself). With the only source of CO2 being the atmosphere, the solution instantaneously draws and removes CO2 from the atmosphere (or from an alternative source that we introduce, such as point source fugitive emissions).
The amount of CO2 "fixed" is directly quantifiable by the amount of carbonate mineral. A single processing plant is capable of fixing twenty-five million tonnes of CO2 per annum; this produces approximately forty-seven million tonnes of Magnesium Carbonate per annum.
The Company's Technologies differ from sequestration projects involving vegetation as the sequestering agent, in that the removal of atmospheric CO2 is permanent. The extraction of CO2 from the atmosphere and the production of carbonate mineral results from a one-way exchange between atmospheric carbon dioxide and saline solution. Additionally, the leakage and stability problems currently associated with in-ground geo-sequestration technology are avoided; as are the nutrient enrichment problems associated with ocean nourishment.
Our Scientists are specialists in chemical mineralogy specialising in water/sediment interactions with an emphasis on layered and pseudo-layered structures, including the precipitation, dissolution and prevention of carbonate materials. We have been testing and developing this technology for more than ten years with over ten million dollars invested to date; successful testing has been conducted at the laboratory scale, two hundred litre scale, and twenty thousand litre scale with comprehensive physical, modelled, and analytical results.